AS A2 Business Studies
Motivation in theory
Motivation in theory
Below is information on four people (FW Taylor, Elton Mayo, Maslow and Herzberg) who all had theories to do with motivation.
- Taylor believed that the only thing which motivated people was money.
- He observed different workers carrying out tasks which became known as his time and motion studies.
- He aimed to make the production process more efficient by using specialist equipment and breaking jobs down
into very simple tasks.
- He devised a set procedure for workers which they had to stick to, to maximise efficiency.
- He designed piece rate (paid people per item made) to encourage people to produce more.
- Mayo studied an electrical company and looked at how changing physical factors improved people's performance.
- He found out that it wasn't the physical conditions being changed that made people work harder but instead the
- Working in a team with a leader,
- Better communication,
- When interest was shown in workers.
- Maslow created a Hierarchy of needs which is normally drawn as a triangle. He believed it showed what people
wanted from their job. He thought everyone starts at the bottom and works their way up to the top.
= = = Esteem needs = = =
= = = = = Social needs = = = = =
= = = = = = Safety needs = = = = = =
= = = = = = = Physical needs = = = = = = =
- Self actualisation - Fulfilment - learning new skills, challenges etc.
- Esteem needs - recognition of achievements.
- Social needs - Friendship, contact - communication.
- Safety needs - Job security and safety.
- Physical needs - Ability to pay for food and shelter with pay.
- The main problem with Maslow's theory is that different people have different needs and not everyone will fit
in the same pattern.
Herzberg used a survey to investigate what people liked and disliked about their jobs.
He put the results into two categories: "Motivators" and "Hygiene factors".
This became known as the two factor theorem and is shown below:
|Recognition of achievement
|Meaningful and interesting work